Cement and Binder

Cement is the hydraulic binder (hydraulic = hardening when combined with water) which is used to produce concrete. Cement paste (cement mixed with water) sets and hardens by hydration, both in air and under water.

Concrete Aggregates

Concrete aggregates, consisting of sand and gravel, represent the grain skeleton of the concrete. All cavities within this skeleton have to be filled with binder paste as complete as possible.

Concrete Admixtures

Concrete admixtures are liquids or powders which are added to the concrete during mixing in small quantities. Dosage is usually defined based on the cement content.

Concrete Additions and Supplementary Cementitious Materials (SCM)

Concrete additions are defined as finely divided materials used in concrete in order to improve or to obtain desired fresh and hardened concrete properties.


The suitability of water for concrete production depends on its origin.