Concrete is a system of three materials, cement, aggregate and water. To extend its properties and potential applications, it can easily become a system of five components, resulting in complex interactions, especially when combined with the application parameters for sprayed concrete. Therefore it is important with sprayed concrete not to change more than one parameter at the same time during the testing phase. Only the technically correct and economically viable solution will satisfy everyone.


The cement in the sprayed concrete mix acts as a “glue” which binds and embeds the aggregate particles together.


Additives are used in sprayed concrete for a variety of requirements and therefore differ considerably in characteristics.


The aggregates (stone particles) form the framework of the sprayed concrete matrix.

Fines Content

Fine content acts as a lubricant in the fresh concrete to improve the workability and water retentivity.


Water goes into the sprayed concrete as added water during its production and as inherent moisture in the aggregate.