Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao bridge is the longest bridge-and-tunnel sea crossing and the longest and deepest undersea tunnel, which took over 400,000 tons of steel to build. The 55 km-long bridge-island-tunnel system crosses the waters of the Lingdingyang channel in the Pearl River Estuary linking Hong Kong in the east with Zhuhai and Macao in the west. The main bridge section is 29.6 km and consists of a 22.9 km viaduct, an island and a 6.7 km offshore immersed tunnel.
A Milestone and Breakthrough in Engineering
The Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge is a milestone and breakthrough in Chinese engineering and as such posed a number of challenges. The complicated geological conditions, multifarious processes, and rigorous standards meant that engineers involved in that project had no precedent to follow. The bridge had to be designed to last 120 years and to withstand a magnitude-8 earthquake, level-16 typhoon, and 300,000-ton impact. Sika China engineers helped supply top professional, highest quality solutions for numerous applications and provided comprehensive technical support for this world-class project.
Sika admixtures were used to produce several types of concrete for the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge project:
- Sika® ViscoCrete®-3310C high range water reducing and superplasticizing admixture had been used to produce 20,000 m3 of C55 site cast (in-situ) concrete on the artificial island, and to produce 75,000 m3 of marine C45 concrete.
- To produce C30 concrete for the retaining wall project of the artificial island, Sika® ViscoCrete®-1220 high-performance water reducer was used.
- Sika admixtures were also used to produce about 500,000 m3 of concrete for bridge construction.
Repair, Protection, and Reinforcement
The prefabricated elements of concrete piers were structurally bonded with Sikadur®-31 SBA epoxy paste adhesive with a 10-year service life, which proves the extremely stable quality of the product. Other applied Sika solutions include Sika® MonoTop®, Sikagard®, SikaGrout®, and Sikadur® products. With Sika top level technology, the structure of the bridge is reinforced and well protected for many years to come.
HKZMB Zhuhai Port is an important part of the Hong Kong- Zhuhai-Macao bridge project with a total area of 325,000 m2. To cover 141,000 m2 of roof area over the passenger inspection areas A and B, Sarnafil PVC single-ply roofing membrane was applied. It not only provided safe and reliable waterproofing protection but also contributed to the architectural design of the building matching with the aluminum standing seam system above it. To achieve this effect, the Sarnafil® S327-15L PVC roof waterproofing membrane was customized to pearl white color for the project.
For the construction of the bridge, Sika provided a wide range of outdoor and indoor flooring solutions, such as epoxy terrazzo flooring, highly wear-resistant polyurethane and dry shake floor hardeners for concrete floors. Sika floor systems were used on a total area of over 140,000 m2 in passenger control halls, parking garages, equipment rooms, office areas and pedestrian walkways on breakwaters. Sika’s high-performing flooring solutions were a perfect fit for this project, as they are designed for the latest trends and requirements and comply with all regulations and standards. Applied systems ensured durability, safety, sustainability as well as an appealing look.
Once the bridge was open for traffic, a special shuttle bus drew national attention. The deluxe bus Scania Higer produced by Higer Bus Company Limited is made of state-of-theart bus manufacturing products that ensure high quality and aesthetic design.
All of the glass on the bus is bonded with SikaTack® Ultrafast HG and the exterior glass joint sealing is completed with Sikaflex®-211 WR. Other external joints around the bus are sealed with Sikaflex®-218 NS Special gray to achieve a smooth and good-looking appearance. Sika also provided Sikaflex®-212 FC for internal sealing application and bus skylights as well as the air conditioning unit being sealed with Sikflex®-221. Last but not least, SikaGard®-6620 is used for chassis protection on the underbody of the bus to ensure longevity and durability of the vehicle.
Sikadur®-31 SBA epoxy paste adhesive
Sika® MonoTop®-412 NFG structural repair mortar
Sikagard®-720 EpoCem surface sealing mortar
Sika® MonoTop®-910 N corrosion protection coating material
SikaGrout®-214 cementitious grout
Sikadur®-42 MP Normal epoxy grouting system
Sikadur®-52 STP crack sealing grout
Sikadur®-31 CF Normal structural adhesive and mortar
Sarnafil® S 327-15L PVC roof membrane
Wide range of outdoor and indoor flooring solutions, such as epoxy terrazzo flooring, highly wear-resistant polyurethane and dry shake floor hardeners for concrete floors
SikaTack® Ultrafast HG